Saturday, 28 May 2011

Branches in Engineering


Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is the term for the work of designing and building infrastructure. It usually means large structures, like bridges, dams, buildings, and tunnels. It also covers complicated networks such as water, irrigation and sewerage networks. Civil engineers can be involved in all stages in the life of infrastructure, from planning and construction to maintenance and demolition.
Civil engineering is made up of many different areas or disciplines. Some important areas are geotechnical, structures, environmental, construction management, hydrology, transportation, and materials. It is important for civil engineers to have an understanding of all these disciplines as projects often involve many of them at the same time.
Civil engineers are responsible for lots of the things that are required for a society to function properly. Safe water supplies, sewage treatment, roads, railways and buildings are all part of civil engineering.
Civil engineering is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering,materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.
To work in civil engineering requires training. Construction workers will train at a center and 'on the job' (training while doing the job). To be a professional in civil engineering requires study at a university or college. Civil engineers often study subjects like structures, materials, physics and calculus.


Computer Engineering

Computer engineering is the science of making computers and their parts. Computer engineers are always trying to make new parts smaller and better. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering, software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. Computer engineering is related to Electrical engineering and Computer science. 
Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems. Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors.
Computer engineering students learn about computers and computer related system design and development. The computer related systems are software systems, hardware systems and systems of software and hardware in combination. Students also need to learn fundamental science subjects and mathematics.
Computer engineering is often compared to Computer science. Computer engineering is about computer hardware and some software. Computer science is about computer software only.  Software engineering companies, telecommunications firms, designers of digital hardware, and many other companies hire Computer engineering majors right out of college and pay them well.

Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. It covers a range of subtopics including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications.
Electrical engineers develop (think and make) different things that use electricity in a helpful way. They fix or design new and better ways of using devices that use electricity.
Electrical engineering may include electronic engineering. However, usually electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits. Alternatively, electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to process information. More recently, the distinction has become blurred by the growth of power electronics.

Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

Electronics and Communication Engineering branch deals with analog and digital transmission & reception of data, voice and video, basic electronics, solid state devices, microprocessors, digital and analog communication, analog integrated circuits, satellite communication, microwave engineering, antennae and wave progression. It also deals with the manufacturing of electronic devices, circuits, and communications equipment like transmitter, receiver, integrated circuits, microwaves, and fiber among others. It aims to deepen the knowledge and skills of the students on the basic concepts and theories that will equip them in their professional work involving analysis, systems implementation, operation, production, and maintenance of the various applications in the field of Electronics and Communications Engineering.
Employment opportunities for Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers are growing rapidly. The list of employers includes manufacturers of radio, television, audio/visual, broadcasting and receiving equipments, hardware and associated software including computer systems, interfaces, security devices, data concentration, data transmission, signaling, satellite and radio communications and telephone equipment. Graduate also work in service organizations that provide broadcasting, consulting, data communications, entertainment, custom manufacturing, research and development, and system support.


Instrumentation & Control Engineering

Instrumentation engineering is specialized branch of electrical and electronic engineering, which focuses on the principle, and operation of measuring instruments, which are used in design and configuration of automated systems. These engineers work for industries with automated processes, such as chemical or manufacturing plants, with the goal of improving system productivity, reliability, safety, optimization and stability. Instrumentation Engineers help in the designing, construction and maintenance of instruments and entire instrumentation systems of an industrial undertaking. An instrumentation engineer decides the type of instruments needed for ensuring better quality and efficiency of the end product.
Instrumentation engineers can get jobs in R&D units of public and private sector companies. They are also required by the Heavy industries such as Thermal Power Stations, Steel Plants, Refineries, and Cement and Fertilizer Plants.
A control and instrumentation engineer is essentially responsible for designing, developing, installing, managing and/or maintaining equipment which is used to monitor and control engineering systems, machinery and processes.

Information Technology

The Information Technology Engineer is capable of performing the most highly diversified tasks because of the broad nature of the degree programme itself, designed to guarantee a solid scientific, economic and technical foundation, yet with sufficient depth to allow the student to approach other subjects that could prove relevant to his/her future career.
The IT course provides students with a general, wide-ranging knowledge that allows them to develop professional skills and specialize in a specific field (the graduate possesses the method and the toolkit to autonomously deepen any subject of electronics, information, automation and communication engineering).
The IT engineer has the know-how to master design, development and management of company information systems, multimedia and hypermedia systems, control and automation systems for automatic machines and production plants, electronic and optical devices, systems and services for communications.
Being able to find in people the right competences of detail, coordination, the IT engineer is a good team player and his/her wide-ranging knowledge allows him/her to interact with experts from different and various field.


Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the design, production, and operation of machines and tools. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.
The engineering field requires an understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, and structural analysis. Mechanical engineers use these core principles along with tools like computer-aided engineering and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices and more.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. Mechanical engineering overlaps with aerospace engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, petroleum engineering, and chemical engineering to varying amounts.

Metallurgy and Material Science Engineering

Metallurgical Engineering is a broad field that deals with all sorts of metal-related areas. The three main branches of this major are physical metallurgy, extractive metallurgy, and mineral processing. Physical metallurgy deals with problem solving: you’ll develop the sorts of metallic alloys needed for different types of manufacturing and construction. Extractive metallurgy involves extracting metal from ore. Mineral processing involves gathering mineral products from the earth’s crust.
As a Metallurgical Engineering major, you’ll learn the fundamentals of all three fields, as well as the basics of engineering in general. We need metals to make our society function—metals make up important parts of cars, bikes, planes, buildings, even toothpaste tubes. Your knowledge of the production, design, and manufacturing of these metals and mineral products can be rewarding and exciting.
Most Metallurgical Engineering programs will offer the opportunity to participate in a cooperative education program, an arrangement in which students spend a semester or more doing engineering work with a metallurgical company. Many of these co-op jobs can become actual jobs after graduation, and the experience will make you a more valuable prospective employee.


Production Engineering

Production engineering is a combination of manufacturing technology with management science. A production engineer typically has a wide knowledge of engineering practices and is aware of the management challenges related to production. The goal is to accomplish the production in the smoothest, most-judicious and most-economical way.
Production engineering encompasses castings, joining processes, metal cutting & tool design, metrology, machine tools, machining systems, automation, jigs and fixtures, and die and mould design. Production engineering overlaps substantially with manufacturing engineering and industrial engineering.
In industry, once the design is realized, production engineering concepts regarding work-study, ergonomics, operation research, manufacturing management, materials management, production planning, etc., play important roles in efficient production processes. These deal with integrated design and efficient planning of the entire manufacturing system, which is becoming increasingly complex with the emergence of sophisticated production methods and control systems.
Work opportunities are available in public and private sector manufacturing organizations engaged in implementation, development and management of new production processes, information and control systems, and computer controlled inspection, assembly and handling.

Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace engineering is a field of engineering that specializes in vehicles that move in fluids. This usually means working with airplanes, cars, boats, trains, or spacecrafts. 
To work in Aerospace engineering you must learn a lot. This is done depending on what you want to do. Aerospace engineers (those who design and oversee repair of vehicles) study at a university or college and must earn a degree. Technicians (those who repair and construct vehicles) will do a shorter course and 'on the job' training. Aerospace jobs include astronauts, pilots, and other professionals.

Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical engineering is the study of medical equipment used in an environment of care or training and how this equipment interfaces with the human body.
Biomedical engineers design, test, modify, recommend modification of, and evaluate all medical equipment used to interface or interact with the human body. In addition to these functions, clinical engineers usually supervise the biomedical equipment maintenance function within an environment of care. 
The medical devices include man-made hands, arms, and legs to replace lost ones and, also, Dialysis machines which clean the blood of a person with damaged kidneys.

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Team WhatNeXT

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